JSON Web Service

Let’s create a very simple web service: it takes a JSON request and returns a JSON response. We’re going to write the server in WAI/Warp, and the client in http-conduit. We’ll be using aeson for JSON parsing and rendering. We could also write the server in Yesod itself, but for such a simple example, the extra features of Yesod don’t add much.


WAI uses the conduit package to handle streaming request bodies, and efficiently generates responses using blaze-builder. aeson uses attoparsec for parsing; by using attoparsec-conduit we get easy interoperability with WAI. This plays out as:

{-# LANGUAGE OverloadedStrings #-}
import           Control.Exception        (SomeException)
import           Control.Exception.Lifted (handle)
import           Control.Monad.IO.Class   (liftIO)
import           Data.Aeson               (Value, encode, object, (.=))
import           Data.Aeson.Parser        (json)
import           Data.ByteString          (ByteString)
import           Data.Conduit             (($$))
import           Data.Conduit.Attoparsec  (sinkParser)
import           Network.HTTP.Types       (status200, status400)
import           Network.Wai              (Application, Response, responseLBS)
import           Network.Wai.Conduit      (sourceRequestBody)
import           Network.Wai.Handler.Warp (run)

main :: IO ()
main = run 3000 app

app :: Application
app req sendResponse = handle (sendResponse . invalidJson) $ do
    value <- sourceRequestBody req $$ sinkParser json
    newValue <- liftIO $ modValue value
    sendResponse $ responseLBS
        [("Content-Type", "application/json")]
        $ encode newValue

invalidJson :: SomeException -> Response
invalidJson ex = responseLBS
    [("Content-Type", "application/json")]
    $ encode $ object
        [ ("message" .= show ex)

-- Application-specific logic would go here.
modValue :: Value -> IO Value
modValue = return


http-conduit was written as a companion to WAI. It too uses conduit and blaze-builder pervasively, meaning we once again get easy interop with aeson. A few extra comments for those not familiar with http-conduit:

  • A Manager is present to keep track of open connections, so that multiple requests to the same server use the same connection. You usually want to use the getGlobalManager function to get the global connection manager.

  • We need to know the size of our request body, which can’t be determined directly from a Builder. Instead, we convert the Builder into a lazy ByteString and take the size from there.

  • There are a number of different functions for initiating a request. We use http, which allows us to directly access the data stream. There are other higher level functions (such as httpLbs) that let you ignore the issues of sources and get the entire body directly.

{-# LANGUAGE OverloadedStrings #-}
import           Control.Monad.IO.Class  (liftIO)
import           Data.Aeson              (Value (Object, String))
import           Data.Aeson              (encode, object, (.=))
import           Data.Aeson.Parser       (json)
import           Data.Conduit            (($$+-))
import           Data.Conduit.Attoparsec (sinkParser)
import           Network.HTTP.Conduit    (RequestBody (RequestBodyLBS),
                                          Response (..), http, method, parseUrl,
                                          requestBody, getGlobalManager)

main :: IO ()
main = do
    manager <- getGlobalManager
    value <- liftIO makeValue
    -- We need to know the size of the request body, so we convert to a
    -- ByteString
    let valueBS = encode value
    req' <- liftIO $ parseUrl "http://localhost:3000/"
    let req = req' { method = "POST", requestBody = RequestBodyLBS valueBS }
    res <- http req manager
    resValue <- responseBody res $$+- sinkParser json
    liftIO $ handleResponse resValue

-- Application-specific function to make the request value
makeValue :: IO Value
makeValue = return $ object
    [ ("foo" .= ("bar" :: String))

-- Application-specific function to handle the response from the server
handleResponse :: Value -> IO ()
handleResponse = print