Client Side Yesod, an FRP-inspired approach

April 22, 2012

GravatarMichael Snoyman

We've said for a while that our big feature in the post-1.0 world of Yesod would be better client side integration. Well, we had the 1.0 release about two weeks ago. That's enough time to relax, time to keep plowing ahead!

There are many different approaches we could consider taking for client side integration. I'm going to describe one here that I've started working on. But that doesn't mean any decisions have been made. The purpose of this post is to get the discussion started on the direction we want to take, and hopefully start to flesh out more clearly what our goals are.

Motivating case: name concatenator

As usual for something as ambitious as a completely new paradigm for client side development, let's start with a use case that doesn't reflect any real world use at all. We want to create a page where you can type in your first and last names, and as you type them, a span on the page will automatically be updated with your full name. (Yes, I know this isn't very i18n-friendly...)

Let's think about what we'd have to do if we want to write this manually:

  • Set up some HTML with the input fields and the span.
  • Generate some kind of unique identifiers for each of those three.
  • On page load, bind event handlers to the keyup event of the input fields which will somehow adjust the span.

Not too bad. Yesod will already help us with the unique identifiers with newIdent. We can use hamlet to put together the HTML without any trouble, and then just write some Javascript for the event handling. So why isn't this an acceptable solution to the problem?

  • We have to write in two completely different languages: Haskell and Javascript.
  • There's no way for the compiler to help us with ensuring the Javascript code is correct.
  • We're going to have almost identical code for the two text fields, and there's no immediately obvious way to avoid code duplication.
  • The solution is not composable, and doesn't scale well for large projects.

An approach: FRP-inspired monadic EDSL

I've put together a proof of concept library. Let's look at an example that implements the behavior I described above.

getHomeR :: Handler RepHtml
getHomeR = defaultLayout $ runJS $ do

    (firstWidget, firstVal) <- textInput
    (lastWidget, lastVal) <- textInput

    let fullVal = firstVal `jsPlus` " " `jsPlus` lastVal
    fullWidget <- textOutput fullVal

    lift [whamlet|
<p>First name: ^{firstWidget}
<p>Last name: ^{lastWidget}
<p>Full name: ^{fullWidget}
|]

We use the textInput function to generate two values: a widget containing the input tag, and some special value. We then use the jsPlus function to concatenate the first value and the last value, with a space in the middle. We plug this value into the textOutput function to get a widget containing a span tag that will display the full name. And finally, we stick all of those widgets into a final widget and display it.

Personally, this kind of feels like an ideal solution to this specific problem. I can't guarantee that this approach will scale, or that it will work well for all kinds of client side code, but it feels like a nice fit right now. I'd love to get feedback.

The devil's in the details

Let's get into the details a bit. The easiest thing to start with is looking at the type signatures involved:

data JSValue jstype
data JSTypeString
type JSString = JSValue JSTypeString
type JS sub master = WriterT JSData (GWidget sub master)

runJS :: YesodJquery master => JS sub master a -> GWidget sub master a
textInput :: JS sub master (GWidget sub master (), JSString)
textOutput :: JSString -> JS sub master (GWidget sub master ())

class JSPlus a
instance JSPlus JSTypeString
jsPlus :: JSPlus jstype => JSValue jstype -> JSValue jstype -> JSValue jstype

We have a new datatype JSValue which includes a phantom type. This phantom states the Javascript datatype of the value. We can use this to prevent us from accidently adding a string and a number together, for example. Notice that JSString is just a JSValue with a JSTypeString phantom.

We also introduce a new monad, JS, which our functions need to live inside. runJS is our unwrapper for this monad. When we run it, all necessary Javascript is automatically generated and added to our Widget.

The textInput function does exactly what I explained before: It gives back a widget and a value. But now we can see that said value is just a JSString. Likewise, when textOutput takes in a value, it's a JSString as well.

Finally, we have the jsPlus function, which will only allow you to add together two things of the same type. I used a typeclass to restrict what could be added; an alternate approach would be to have a separate function for each type of "plussing", e.g. jsPlusString, jsPlusInt, etc. I have no strong feeling on which approach should be taken.

By the way, the reason we could use jsPlus on " " is because of OverloadedStrings and the following instance:

instance (JSTypeString ~ jstype) => IsString (JSValue jstype) where
    ...

The generated Javascript

To better understand the next section, let's take a sidetrack to analyze the generated Javascript. Adding in some indentation:

$(function(){
    var h2; // first name
    var h4; // last name

    var h6 = function() {
        $("#h7").text((h2||'') + " " + (h4||''))
    };

    $("#h3").keyup(function(){
        h2 = $(this).val();
        h6()
    });

    $("#h5").keyup(function(){
        h4 = $(this).val();
        h6()
    });
});

We have two variables: h2 and h4. (All the names are auto-generated via newIdent.) These are used to cache the values in the first and last name input fields, respectively. Next, we have a function h6, which uses the h2 and h4 variables to create the full name. It places that result in the appropriate span tag, h7 being the auto-generated ID of the span tag.

Finally, we bind to the keyup events for both of the input fields. Each time, we cache the value in the field to the appropriate local variable, and then call the h6 function to update the span.

Now let's see how we generate such Javascript.

The JS monad

If you look at the definition of the JS monad, you'll see that it's just a WriterT for JSData. So really, all of the magic for this code lives in that datatype. Let's look at this thing:

data JSData = JSData
    { jsdEvents :: Map.Map JSVar (Set.Set JSFunc -> Builder)
    , jsdVars :: Set.Set JSVar
    , jsdFuncs :: Map.Map JSFunc Builder
    , jsdDeps :: Map.Map JSVar (Set.Set JSFunc)
    }

newtype JSVar = JSVar Text
newtype JSFunc = JSFunc Text

Let's start with the simple ones, and build our way up. jsdVars is simply a set of all the variables that we're going to define. Each time we use textInput, it auto-generates a new variable name and adds it to this set. That's how we got our list of variable declarations in our output Javascript.

Next we have jsdFuncs, which maps function names (e.g., h6) to their bodies. This would be generated by textOutput, specifying how to update the output field.

jsdDeps is a connection between the previous two fields. It specifies which functions depend on which variables. So for our example, it would look something like:

Map.fromList [("h2", Set.singleton "h6"), ("h4", Set.singleton "h6")]

To understand how this works, let's look at the definition of JSValue:

data JSValue jstype = JSValue
    { jsvExpr :: Builder
    , jsvDeps :: Set.Set JSVar
    }

A JSValue is just two pieces of information: a Javascript expression, and a set of variables it depends on. When we pass a value to textOutput, it creates a new function (in this case, h6) which uses the jsvExpr to update the span tags, and then creates dependencies between each variable in jsvDeps and that function. What we're saying is: each time one of the underlying variables gets updated, please call this function.

Finally, we get to jsdEvents. This is where we specify how to update each variable. It maps the variable name to a funny type:

Set.Set JSFunc -> Builder

What this is saying is: Tell me which functions depend on my value. Then I'll set up an event handler that will update the local variable and call any dependent functions and update them as well.

That's all for now

I'm hoping this sparks a discussion about benefits and weaknesses of the approach I've set up here, and possible alternatives. If you want to see more of the internals of how this is implemented, check out the sourcecode.

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