Cookbook: Adding CSS and Javascript

January 30, 2013

GravatarMichael Snoyman

This is a cookbook recipe. Yesod has a strong and growing collection of cookbook recipes available on our Wiki. If you see any recipes you think should be highlighted here, or would like to request some additions, please bring it up on the mailing list or the Google+ community.

Let's take a very simple problem: including some CSS or Javascript on a page in your Yesod site. There are actually many different ways to do this. Fortunately, there are just a few recommended options, and the choice really depends on what kind of use case you're optimizing for. Let's step through these recommended approaches:

widgetFile

Probably the simplest thing to do is to use the widgetFile helper function from the scaffolding. This typically looks something like:

getHomeR = defaultLayout $ do
    setTitle "My Awesome Site"
    $(widgetFile "home")

widgetFile will then look in your templates folder and find home.hamlet, home.lucius, home.cassius, and home.julius. If it finds any of those, it will include them in your page appropriately. When you're using yesod devel, it will automatically reload any changes to the Lucius, Cassius and Julius files.

Some important points:

  • For per-page styling, this works out very well. The scaffolding will place the generated CSS and JS into an automatically generated external file, so users won't have to redownload the contents. But it will also automatically concatenate these contents with other CSS and JS snippets, minimizing the number of connections.

  • Since defaultLayout also uses widgetFile, you can likewise edit default-layout.lucius, default-layout.cassius and default-layout.julius.

  • If you have a very large amount of CSS or JS that will be used on many pages, this is not the right approach to use, since it will inflate the size of each page's CSS and JS download. Instead, the contents should be placed in an external file.

addScript(Remote)/addStylesheet(Remote)

If you have large files, such as jQuery or bootstrap.css, you don't want Yesod to automatically concatenate their contents for each page. Instead, you want to have a single static file that all pages can reference, and caching will ensure that the file isn't downloaded multiple times.

The simpler variant is just referring to this file via URL. This works very well for CDN-hosted files. So for example, to include jQuery, you can use:

addScriptRemote "http://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.9.0/jquery.min.js"

If you want to serve the files yourself, the process is only a bit more complicated. First, you'll need to create the file inside the static folder, e.g. static/css/bootstrap.css. Then you'll need to reference its type-safe URL. To save you from typos, Yesod automatically generates identifiers for all files in your static folder, based on a simple renaming scheme. So to include Bootstrap, you would use something like:

addStylesheet $ StaticR css_bootstrap_css

addScriptEither/addStylesheetEither

There's one other tweak to throw in. For some specific libraries (including jQuery), Yesod provides a typeclass where you can specify the location of the file to be used. This way, all jQuery-using widgets can share a single jQuery instance. To keep things as general as possible, these libraries are specified as an Either type, giving either a textual URL or a type-safe URL. In order to add something like that, you need to use addScriptEither, e.g.:

master <- lift getYesod
addScriptEither $ urlJqueryJs master

toWidget

If you don't want to have to create an external template file, you can use the Shakesperean quasi-quoters. You just need to promote them to Widgets, e.g.:

toWidget [lucius| foo { bar: baz } |]
toWidget [julius| alert("Hello World!"); |]

In general, however, I recommend using the external file approach.

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