Supporting separate read and write databases in persistent

April 10, 2016

GravatarEric Easley

Introduction

persistent has just released a new major version. With this release, queries which only read data are distinguished, at the type level, from queries which write data. This makes using a read replica database safer and generally makes our types more informative. Breakage should be minimal for end users.

Scaling a database

Many applications eventually reach the limits of a single database machine and work across multiple machines. Distributing state across multiple machines can introduce a great deal of complexity. Consequently, there are many approaches to dealing with multiple databases. The CAP theorem ensures that none of them is perfect (Is there ever a good impossibility theorem?). Front Row Education chose to go with streaming, native replication from a PostgreSQL write database to a PostgreSQL read database.

Possible solutions

What's the best way to program against a write database with a read replica? Here are a few approaches:

1. Run opaque queries against chosen backend.

In this approach, we don't change any of the persistent machinery. selectList, insert and runSqlPool stay the same:

runSqlPool :: (MonadBaseControl IO m) => ReaderT SqlBackend m a -> Pool SqlBackend -> m a
writeBackend :: SqlBackend
readBackend :: SqlBackend

insertStudent :: ReaderT SqlBackend IO StudentId
insertStudent = insert student

selectStudents :: ReaderT SqlBackend IO [Entity Student]
selectStudents = selectList ([] :: [Filter Student]) []

insertAndSelect :: IO [Entity Student]
insertAndSelect = do
  _ <- runSqlPool (insertStudent >> insertStudent) writeBackend
  runSqlPool selectStudents readBackend

We choose which backend to run our queries against at execution time. That is, we pass one backend to runSqlPool if we want to execute the query against the read database and a different backend if we want to execute our query against the write database.

This approach does work in the most basic sense of the word. But it's manual and error-prone. Nothing stops us from accidentally running a write query against a read database and getting an error at runtime. That's not the Haskell way! We'd be much better off encoding this read and write information in the query's type.

2. update, delete and insert write. select reads.

In this approach we create wrappers around SqlBackend called SqlReadBackend and SqlWriteBackend. Then, we specify that all selects (reads) will operate against the read database and all inserts, update, or delete (writes) will operate against the write database. We can intermix queries of different types with multiple (now type safe) calls to runSqlPool:

runSqlPool :: (MonadBaseControl IO m, IsSqlBackend backend) => ReaderT backend m a -> Pool backend -> m a
writeBackend :: SqlWriteBackend
readBackend :: SqlReadBackend

insertStudent :: ReaderT SqlWriteBackend IO StudentId

selectStudents :: ReaderT SqlReadBackend IO [Entity Student]

insertAndSelect :: IO [Entity Student]
insertAndSelect = do
  _ <- runSqlPool (insertStudent >> insertStudnet) writeBackend
  runSqlPool selectStudents readBackend

Attempting to run insertStudent against on the readBackend will result in a type error. Nice!

Unfortunately, it will also result in a type error when attempting to run selectStudents against the writeBackend. Which is why we used two calls to runSqlPool in the above example. This inability to mix reads and writes in a single transaction is rather restrictive.

This approach also ignores problems of eventual consistency. Even under streaming replication, there is some lag (hopefully, only a few milliseconds or less) between the read database and the write database. If we can't run reads in the same transaction, on the same DB as writes we have a serious problem. In the above example, we have no guarantee that our student insertions will have propagated to the read DB in time for the select that immediately follows the insert.

3. update, delete and insert write. select can be used in a read or write context.

We must generalize our read operations so that we can still run them against the write database when we need to.

runSqlPool :: (MonadBaseControl IO m, IsSqlBackend backend) => ReaderT backend m a -> Pool backend -> m a
writeBackend :: SqlWriteBackend
readBackend :: SqlReadBackend
instance SqlBackendCanRead SqlWriteBackend
instance SqlBackendCanRead SqlReadBackend

insertStudent :: ReaderT SqlWriteBackend IO StudentId

selectStudents :: (SqlBackendCanRead backend) => ReaderT backend IO [Entity Student]

insertAndSelect :: IO [Entity Student]
insertAndSelect =
  runSqlPool (insertStudent >> insertStudent >> selectStudents) writeBackend

We now use type classes to say that write queries can only run against the write database but read queries can run against either type of database and we can defer the decision of where to run a read query until use. But in a safe way.

persistent

The new version of persistent follows the third approach.

Types as documentation

IO is sometimes referred to as Haskell's "sin bin". That is, a great number of effects end up marked as IO. Consequently, when you see IO in a type signature, it's hard to determine which effects that function uses. Does the function write to disk or get the current time? A more fine-grained type would make our types more informative.

Along similar lines, splitting the monolithic SqlPersistT into SqlReadT and SqlWriteT allows us to more clearly signal the capabilities leveraged inside a given function. When we see SqlReadT, we can be confident that the underlying database state hasn't changed.

Breaking changes

This version of persistent shouldn't break application authors and end users of persistent. You can continue to use SqlBackend which is now an instance of SqlBackendCanRead and SqlBackendCanWrite.

Library authors may need to modify some type signatures to work with the new machinery.

For example,

get404
  :: (MonadIO m, PersistStore backend, backend ~ PersistEntityBackend val, PersistEntity val)
  => Key val -> ReaderT backend m val

becomes

get404
  :: (MonadIO m, PersistStore backend, BaseBackend backend ~ PersistEntityBackend val, PersistEntity val)
  => Key val -> ReaderT backend m val

which leverages

instance HasPersistBackend SqlBackend where
  type BaseBackend SqlBackend = SqlBackend
instance HasPersistBackend SqlReadBackend where
  type BaseBackend SqlReadBackend = SqlBackend
instance HasPersistBackend SqlWriteBackend where
  type BaseBackend SqlWriteBackend = SqlBackend

from persistent.

This new concept of BaseBackend allows us to still assign a unique type of backend to each PersistEntity despite the availability of SqlReadBackend, SqlWriteBackend and SqlBackend.

Conclusion

If you have a read replica, you can now access it more safely. Even if you don't, your types are now a little more informative. And you get this for almost free!

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